08 May, 2008

Pachacuti Inca

Pachacuti Inca , whose name means "He who remakes the world" was the ninth Sapa Inca (1438-71 of the Kingdom of Cuzco, which he transformed into an empire,He began the era of conquest that, within three generations, expanded the Inca dominion from the valley of Cuzco to nearly the whole of civilized South America. He was the fourth of the Hanan dynasty, and his wife's name is given as Mama Anawarkhi or Coya Anahurque. Their son was Tupac Inca Yupanqui. Their other son was Prince Yupanqui, who married Coya Chimpu Cello, the parents of Prince Inca Tupac Yupanki, who married Mama Cello, the parents of Princess Beatriz Tupac Yupanqui, wife of Conquistador Pedro Álvarez de Holguín, son of Pedro Álvarez Golfín and wife Constanza de Aldana, and had female issue (ancestors of José Gervasio Artigas and Gabriel Antonio Pereira and three times ancestors of Princess Maxima of the Netherlands).
His given name was Cusi Yupanqui and he was not supposed to succeed his father Inca Viracocha who had appointed his brother Urco as crown prince. However in the midst of an invasion of Cuzco by the Chankas, the Incas' traditional tribal archenemies, Pachacuti had a real opportunity to demonstrate his talent. While his father and brother fled the scene Pachacuti rallied the army and prepared for a desperate defense of his homeland. In the resulting battle the Chankas where defeated so severely that legend tells even the stones rose up to fight on Pachacuti's side. Thus "The Earth Shaker" won the support of his people and the recognition of his father as crown prince and joint ruler.
After his father's death Pachacuti became sole ruler of the Incan empire. Immediately he initiated an energetic series of military campaigns which would transform the small state around Cuzco into a formidable nation. His conquests in collaboration with Tupac Yupanqui (Pachacuti's son and successor) where so successful that the 9th Incan emperor is sometimes referred to as "The Napoleon of the Andes." When Pachacuti died in 1471 the empire stretched from Chile to the south and Ecuador to the north also including the modern countries of Peru and Bolivia as well as most of northern Argentina.
Pachacuti also reorganized the new empire, the Tahuantinsuyu or "the united four provinces." Under his system, there were four apos that each controlled one of four provinces (suyu). Below these governors were t'oqrikoq, or local leaders, who ran a city, valley, or mine. By the time of the Spanish conquest of Peru, each apo had around 15 t'oqrikoq below him, but we can assume there were fewer when Pachacuti first organized this system. He also established a separate chain of command for the army and priesthood to establish a system of checks and balances on power. Amazines
More on Pachacuti: enotes, Wikipedia, First People, Galapagos.to, Civ3, Bookrags, uncan-online, techfixers, edhelper, h-net, infoplease, Crystalinks, Allempires, incas-mrdonn, Adventurespecialists, Encylocentral, Books, Scholar

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